The PubMed search yielded articles. Throughout the continent, the overall magnitude of the response has been inadequate, and expectations about what could be achieved quickly have been unrealistic.
The availability of less healthy foods in schools is inversely associated with fruit and vegetable consumption and is positively associated with fat intake among students Measurement Nomination and Selection Content area experts specializing in nutrition, physical activity, and other obesity-related behaviors assisted the Measures Project Team in selecting potential measurements that communities can use to assess the recommended obesity prevention strategies.
Communities Should Support Locating Schools within Easy Walking Distance of Residential Areas Overview Walking to and from school has been demonstrated to increase physical activity among children during the commute, leading to increased energy expenditure and potentially to reduced obesity.
The purpose of the discussion in this chapter is to delineate opportunities for effecting beneficial behavior changes and to discuss how these opportunities might be realized.
This measurement assesses the proportion of land within a local jurisdiction that is zoned for mixed use including residential land use. Disparities in the availability of healthier foods and beverages between communities with different income levels, ethnic composition, and other characteristics are well documented, and limited availability of healthier food and beverage choices in underserved communities constitutes a substantial barrier to improving nutrition and preventing obesity When residential or commercial buildings are vacant, places conducive to crime are more readily available, which might deter persons from engaging in physical activity.
Suggested measurement A policy exists that prohibits the sale of less healthy foods and beverages as defined by IOM  within local government facilities in a local jurisdiction or on public school campuses during the school day within the largest school district in a local jurisdiction.
Schools can restrict the availability of less healthy foods by setting standards for the types of foods sold, restricting access to vending machines, banning snack foods and food as rewards in classrooms, prohibiting food sales at certain times of the school day, or changing the locations where unhealthy competitive foods are sold.
Although no standard benchmark exists for this measurement, data collected local governments reporting on this measurement can lead to establishment of a standard.
Despite the many advantages of breastfeeding, many women choose to bottle-feed their babies for a variety of reasons, including social and structural barriers to breastfeeding, such as attitudes and policies regarding breastfeeding in health-care settings and public and work places This report describes the expert panel process that was used to identify 24 recommended strategies for obesity prevention and a suggested measurement for each strategy that communities can use to assess performance and track progress over time.
Reviews of cross-sectional studies of environmental correlates of physical activity and walking generally find a positive association between infrastructure supportive of walking and physical activityFurthermore, evaluations of individual interventions aimed at supporting breastfeeding in the workplace demonstrate increased initiation rates and duration of breastfeeding compared with national averages However, one study indicated that improved street lighting in London led to reduced crime rates, less fear of crime, and more pedestrian street use A few exploratory strategies for which no evidence was available were included in the recommendations on the basis of expert opinion and to determine the effectiveness of the strategy for preventing obesity.
Suggested measurement Local government has a policy requiring local government facilities to provide breastfeeding accommodations for employees that include both time and private space for breastfeeding during working hours. Yet, family planning programs have been successful even in some of the most disadvantaged countries of the world see, for example, Cleland et al.
Another study that used self-report and GIS data concluded that longer distances and the presence of barriers e. The majority of studies that evaluated the impact of portion size on nutritional outcomes were short term, producing little evidence regarding the long-term impact of portion size on eating patterns, nutrition, and obesity Experts suggest that these mechanisms have the potential to increase opportunities to consume healthier foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables, by possibly reducing costs of fresh foods through direct sales; making fresh foods available in areas without supermarkets; and harvesting fruits and vegetables at ripeness rather than at a time conducive to shipping, which might improve their nutritional value and taste M.
Improving the availability of healthier food and beverage choices e.
Pilot Test and Final Revisions Twenty local government representatives, including city managers, urban planners, and budget analysts, who participate in ICMA's Center for Performance Measurement CPMvolunteered to pilot test the selected measurements. Otherwise, determination of what constitutes screen viewing time is left to individual jurisdictions.
Communities Should Enhance Infrastructure Supporting Bicycling Overview Enhancing infrastructure supporting bicycling includes creating bike lanes, shared-use paths, and routes on existing and new roads; and providing bike racks in the vicinity of commercial and other public spaces.
Healthier foods and beverages include, but are not limited to, foods and beverages with low energy density and low calorie, sugar, fat, and sodium content Suggested measurement The percentage of public schools within the largest school district in a local jurisdiction that allow the use of their athletic facilities by the public during non-school hours on a regular basis.
A multivariate analysis indicated that self-reported access to a park, and the perception that footpaths are safe for walking were significantly associated with adult respondents being classified as physically active at a level sufficient for health benefits It is important to have realistic expectations about what can and cannot be achieved.
Such programs include a variety of interventions in hospitals and workplaces e. Current evidence suggests that pregnancy can harm the health of younger teenagers and their babies. The Community Guide rated the evidence for community-scale urban design and land use policies and practices as sufficient to justify a recommendation that these characteristics increase physical activity 23, Evidence The Community Guide reports sufficient evidence that street-scale urban design and land use policies that support walking are effective in increasing levels of physical activity Jan 01, · The Select Expert Panel met to discuss and rank order the strategies on the basis of the results of the online survey.
The Panel identified 47 strategies as most promising, including 26 nutrition strategies, 17 physical activity strategies, and four other obesity-related strategies. for many strategies, a local government expert. EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY benefits will i ncrease the effectiveness of activities and the sustainability of outcomes.
Ideally, this dialogue and negotia tion w ill re sult in a greement on government policies and practices were favourable.i. Basic Strategy Concepts Learning Objectives After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: those really strategies or are they some kind of “plan”?
What is the dif- federal government agency Veterans Administration operates well over 1, hospitals, clinics, and other facilities. Terence Darlington Mushore et al.: Effectiveness of Drought Mitigation Strategies in Bikita District, Zimbabwe Figure 3. Food crops grown in Ward 2 of Bikita District Sorghum is the most dominant drought resistant crop grown in the ward which was cited by 26%.
IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE ETHICS STANDARDS IN GOVERNMENT AND THE CIVIL SERVICE 1 Specific strategies which should be considered include: and effectiveness, upholding the Constitution and the laws, and seeking to advance the public good at all times.
This paper aims to discuss a) the coverage and effectiveness of both government purchasing through insurance and government provision of tax-funded free or subsidized care as strategies of financial protection; b) the contribution that PFHI makes to the reduction in catastrophic health expenditures due to hospitalization; and c) the equity.Download